Medicine: The Old Wise Man

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childhood trauma to use as a scapegoat. He faces the responsibility of revising his goals in life. In this case, the businessman realized that he had lived a one-sided life. Not only did he slow down, but he was satisfied to do so—and could take trips without anxiety or giddiness.

Jungrans often say that after a patient has been cured of a neurosis in Freudian analysis, his "soul has been sterilized." Says Jung: "The neurosis contains the soul of the sick person, or at least a considerable part of it, and if the neurosis could be taken out like a decayed tooth, in the rationalistic way, then the patient would have gained nothing and lost something very important, much as a thinker who loses his doubt of the truth of his conclusions, or a moral man who loses his temptations . . . The individual [must] choose his own way consciously and with conscious moral decision."

Fathers & Sons. One of modern man's troubles, according to Jung, is that he has lost touch with his roots. Americans, for instance, he thinks are not yet at home in their unconscious on a continent wrested so recently from nature; this produces tension and helps account for America's go-getting energy.*‡ Carl Jung himself is not troubled by lack of roots. He comes from a long line of pastors of the Swiss Reformed Church. Though he has traveled all over the world, from India (where he lectured) to Kenya (where he lived with a primitive tribe near Mount Elgon), Jung's home is the same house he and his wife Emma built in 1908.

He had a lonely boyhood in Basel, started to learn Latin at six, and grew into what he was later to classify as "an introvert type with the dominant function of thinking." His first ambition was to become an archaeologist or paleontologist. "He's still thrilled at news of an excavation," says a disciple. "But we carry history inside us, too, and he's dug it up there."

Largely to please his father, Jung chose medicine. He soon became fascinated with psychiatry. In 1900, newly graduated Dr. Jung went to Zurich as an assistant in the famed old university mental clinic. After he discovered the writings of Freud, Jung devised word-association tests which were hailed as proof of Freud's basic theory of repression. Jung and his chief, Dr. Eugen Bleuler, gave Freudian theories a longed-for accolade of respectability through the prestigious Zurich clinic. In 1907 Jung went to Vienna to spend two weeks with the master. "The first day we talked for 13 hours," he recalls. "We talked about everything. But I could not swallow his so-called science positivism, his merely rational view of the psyche and his materialistic point of view."

Later, crossing the Atlantic together on their way to give addresses at Clark University in Worcester. Mass., Freud and Jung debated endlessly on psychological problems and analyzed each other's dreams. Freud cast Jung in the role of his intellectual son and heir. But the halcyon days were over. At Munich in 1912, Freud upbraided Jung for writing about psychoanalysis without mentioning the founder's name. The talk turned to Egypt's King Amenhotep IV as founder of a religion. "He is the one who scratched out his father's name on the monuments," said Freud. "Yes." Jung replied, "but with that you

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