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far from denying the reality of certain data definitely associated with the psychic movement, but interpreted by partisans as spiritualistic evidences. Though psychical phenomena are of ancient origin, modern spiritism began in 1848 with the famous Fox sisters, of Wayne County, N. Y., who before they died confessed to fraudulent methods. Mediums have come and gone since— Slade, Foster, Daniel Dunglas Home, Stainton Moses, Mrs. Verrall, Mrs. Holland, Mrs. Piper, Eusapia Palladino—and with scarcely an exception the professionals of the trade have been discredited as imposters. Mrs. Leonora Piper, the American medium who gained the confidence of William James and Professor Hyslop, has perhaps survived with the best reputation for honesty. She alone put no restrictions on her sittings and cooperated frankly with investigators. The well known habit of mediums to stage their performances only under obscure conditions of their own choice has justifiably prejudiced scientists against the whole tribe.

A vast literature has grown up around the subject, of which a few of the best references are:


Sir William Barrett, On the Threshold of the Unseen (Button, 1917).

James H. Hyslop, Contact with the Other World (Century, 1919).

F. W. H. Myers, Human Personality and Its Survival of Bodily Death (Longmans, 1920).

Camille Flammarion, Before Death; At the Moment of Death; After Death, 3 vols. (Century, 1923 and earlier).

Sir Oliver Lodge, section on " Psychic Science," in Vol. Ill, The Outline of Science, edited by Prof. J. Arthur Thomson. (Putnam, 1922).


Joseph Jastrow, Fact and Fable in Psychology (Houghton Mifflin, 1901). Still the best statement from the side of scientific psychology.

Amy E. Tanner, Studies in Spiritism (Appleton, 1910). A case report on Mrs. Piper.

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