In the 1950s, several northern European countries signed “guest-worker” agreements with southern countries to lure manual laborers, who were supposed to stay for a couple of years and then go home. Germany and Turkey signed one in 1961, and over the next 12 years hundreds of thousands of Turks answered the call but not all returned home. By 1973, when the program was canceled, nearly 1 million Turks were living in Germany. Today, approximately 2.5 million Turks live there. Unal Nas, a Turkish engineer who arrived in Germany as a guest worker in 1966, opened his first shop selling pita bread in 1975, after cashing in his savings to buy a German bakery. Under a 1927 agreement, Turks in Germany were not permitted to own bakeries. The agreement was abandoned in 1983, and Nas became the legal owner. Today, he has a fleet of 35 trucks delivering more than 40 kinds of baked goods. With an unemployment rate of 10.6%, Germany does not lack workers; it lacks modern skills and is once again looking outside its borders to fill that need.