Up in Scotland, tired and wet after a day's fishing, Chancellor of the Exchequer Neville Chamberlain changed his socks and sat down with a warm drink. The telephone jangled.

"Government priority," an excited voice called. "The Treasury calling the Chancellor of the Exchequer."

As Mr. Chamberlain listened his face broke into a broad grin. When the call was finished he went back to the sideboard and filled up his glass again, for here was something better than a 40-lb. salmon. The young man at the Treasury had just finished balancing Britain's books for the fiscal year. The Treasury...