CONFERENCES: Delicate Operation

Arthur Koestler's biting description of 20th-century labor leaders—"men with iron wills and wooden heads"—seemed to be inaccurate. At a great Labor conference in Paris last week the iron was highly pliable, the wood intricately grained. Men who claimed to represent 75,000,000 of the world's organized workers negotiated with patience and subtlety until a new entity—W.F.T.U.—was in being.

The World Federation of Trade Unions had gone through its early stages last winter in London and last spring in Oakland, Calif. Finally established last week, it was intended to replace the old I.F.T.U....

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