BRAZIL: Nation's Birthday

On Sept. 7, 1822, at Ypiranga near Sao Paulo, Brazil's Prince Regent Pedro received a batch of dispatches from Portugal telling of oppressive measures planned for the colony. Then & there Prince Pedro uttered what Brazilians now call the Grito de Ypiranga: "Independence or death!" He revolted against his father the Emperor, declared Brazil independent, became its first monarch, Dom Pedro I. Although Brazil later overthrew his son, Dom Pedro II, and became a republic, Brazilians this week celebrated the 119th anniversary of their independence with as little animosity toward Portugal as...

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