Science: Welded Steamer

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Out of Charleston, S.C., and then triumphantly back in again, steamed a new and empty steel cargo ship, the Carolinian. Only the closest look by a ship-wise observer would have seen why she was different from any othe steel ship— there were no rivet-heads studding her sleek sides. All her plates had been arc-welded, with an estimated saving of 25% in construction costs, of 20% in weight. Her designer: Richard F. Smith, 30. Builders: Charleston Dry Dock & Machine Co. (under Vice President Charles V. Boy kin).

The adoption of arc-welding by shipbuilders marks another step in the gradual displacement of the noisy and often inefficient rivet. Welding is increasingly used in steel skyscraper construction (in Manhattan a fire department permit is necessary). In the construction of many parts of automobiles, welding is replacing and bettering costly, intricate castings and forgings, which are more subject to structural failure.