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Yugo-Slavia, a fraction smaller than the state of Oregon, comprises eight areas, the main parts of which are known as Serbia, Croatia, Montenegro, Slovenia, Bosnia, Herzegovina.

The problem which faces the country is almost parallel to the old Austro-Hungarian nationality question. The Serbs, led by white-haired Nikolai Pashitch, want a Greater Serbia—that is, a strong central government for the whole nation. The others are split. The Croatians want autonomy (self-government), some under the monarchy, some outside it as an independent republic. The Montenegrins demand a plebiscite which shall permit them to settle whether they are to stay as an autonomous country under the existing Karageovgevitch Monarchy or become again, as they were before 1921, an independent country. The remainder are mainly out for autonomy without geographical delimitation.

The leader of the Croatian Peasants, who favor an independent republic for Croatia, is Stefan Raditch. In the last National Assembly, the Raditch Party had 70 seats and proved itself a great nuisance to the Government. On the eve of a new general election, Premier Pashitch had Raditch and several others arrested. Subsequently, a court ordered their release; but the Government quickly found more evidence against them and had them rearrested. But this was not enough; the aged Premier, who swore to fight rather than to yield to the federative demands of his political enemies, ordered the dissolution of the Peasants' Party. His celebrated iron list had descended.

Recently the election was held. Soldiers allegedly played a great part—with their bayonets and rifle butts. Government political agents advised the voters how to vote—for the Government. In Croatia, an unrecognized Peasants' Party voted for its candidates. Raditch and his friends were in jail, half the country was terrorized; yet, despite all this, the Government only increased its majority slightly, gaining some 30 seats and establishing a Government majority of about five over all parties of the Opposition.

Of this opposition, however, the Croatian Peasants' Party is not recognized and will not be allowed, even if it desires, to sit in the next Parliament. The Government majority is therefore virtually 75. Once again Serbian methods have won another election ; once more the Government has scored a great victory; but, as formerly, at least half the electorate remains hostile to Nikolai Pashitch and all he stands for.