Possibly the least culpable fraud on this list, Frederick Philip Grove was born Felix Paul Greve in what is now Poland. A student of the classic philosophers at Friedrich-Wilhelms University in Germany, Grove left the university to write poetry and verse, none of which were well received. He spent a year in prison for unspecified fraud; after his release he found that his work hadn't become any more acclaimed. He fled Germany, traveled for a while and ended up in Canada where he became a successful author under his slightly altered name, producing several novels about life on the prairie in his newfound home. It was when he tried to create a wholly fabricated background for himself (as a Swedish aristocrat, no less) in the partly autobiographical works A Search for America and In Search of Myself that Grove got in trouble, although not while he was around to see it. The books raised flags in the 1960s more than 20 years after Grove's death when D.O. Spettigue's investigation Frederick Philip Grove called into question the truthfulness of his account.