During World War II, General Marshall was among the nation's most distinguished soldiers. As Army chief of staff, he helped oversee the deployment of more than 8 million soldiers. Appointed by President Truman to head the State Department at the war's end, Marshall outlined his sweeping plan to rebuild Europe in a speech at Harvard University in 1947. The Marshall Plan, as it became known, catalyzed the continent's recovery from the carnage. Marshall, who was named TIME's Person of the Year in 1943 and 1947, was the recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953.
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