Mohandas Gandhi: 1869-1948


In 1914, Gandhi left South Africa for India after 21 years of organizing civil disobedience protests against abuses of Indian rights. "The saint has left our shores. I sincerely hope forever," commented South African statesman General Jan Smuts. Pictured here with his wife, Kasturba, Gandhi took on India's British colonial rulers upon his return, organizing passive resistance campaigns and shaping the Indian National Congress into an effective grassroots party, based around the philosophy of satyagraha, or unconditional nonviolence. His actions earned him the title of "Mahatma," or "Great Soul."

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