A Timeline of Nuclear Disarmament
Men in the Middle
Prior to 1960, the U.S. had no comprehensive nuclear action plan; each branch of the armed forces had its own. In the final months of Dwight Eisenhower's presidency, a formal plan called SIOP (for Single Integrated Operational Plan) was developed. But it suffered from an appalling level of disregard for the reality of nuclear weaponry. Robert McNamara, above right, John F. Kennedy's Secretary of Defense, altered the plan in significant ways: by not directing missiles at China in the case of war, and by focusing on military targets instead of cities.