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Asthma cases and deaths in the U.S. jumped by an alarming two-fifths from 1982 to 1992, and air pollution, airtight homes and windowless offices may aggravate the condition, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said in a report released today. During the ten-year period, the rate of asthma rose by 42 percent (from 34.7 to 49.4 sufferers per thousand people), while the death rate for asthmatics rose by 40 percent (3,154 deaths to 5,106) over roughly the same period. About 13 million Americans (one out of twenty people) suffer from asthma, an inflammation of the airways that results in wheezing and shortness of breath. The CDC is short on explanations, but noted that in 1991, 63 percent of asthma sufferers lived in areas where at least one federal air quality standard was exceeded.