Borders are mankind's way of measuring power. They expand and shrink, bend and break at the touch of human ambition. But as the century's empires came and left, life kept up its relentless pace
Western colonialism dominated Africa and the Asian islands. The Russian, Ottoman, German, Austro-Hungarian and Chinese empires had passed their peaks
WORLD POPULATION 1.6 billion
CITY POPULATIONS IN MILLIONS London 6.6 New York 3.4 Paris 2.7 Berlin 1.9 Chicago 1.7 Vienna 1.7 Tokyo 1.5 Wuhan, China 1.5 Philadelphia 1.3 St. Petersburg 1.3
LEADERS Britain Marquis of Salisbury France Emile Loubet Germany Emperor William II Japan Emperor Mutsuhito...