IN THE CITY WHERE IT ALL BEGAN

The Ottoman Turks built a fortress to loom over Erbil, a city already old when they conquered it and still making history now that the Sultans of Constantinople are no more. From that citadel, Erbil last week appeared remarkably calm for a city just beset by Iraq. Banks were open, shops were doing brisk business and, except for several parliament buildings and the headquarters of the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (P.U.K.), the city bore almost no indications of fighting. What little evidence there was, however, spoke volumes. A bust of Jalal Talabani, the P.U.K. leader, was beheaded at a road junction....

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