Assessing the Impact of Sanctions

A wide array of options offers varying levels of pressure

In the emotional debate in the U.S. over applying sanctions against South Africa, the impact that various measures may have often gets lost. Sanctions come in a wide variety of forms and, according to economists and other analysts who have studied the range of possible measures, the economic consequences can vary considerably. In order of increasing severity, here is what specific proposed actions may do:

LANDING RIGHTS. The government-owned South African Airways flew 100,000 passengers, mostly white officials, businessmen and tourists, to and from the U.S. last year. The proposal by some Senators and others to rescind the country's landing rights...

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