A Movement but No Revolution

At 77, the African National Congress is one of the oldest liberation movements in the world and therefore one of the least effective. Founded by black professionals and hereditary chiefs as a modest political lobby, it turned to "armed struggle" under the guidance of Nelson Mandela after it was outlawed in 1960, but never mounted a significant threat to the government in either guise. Today the exiled A.N.C. is looking to change its fortunes. In collaboration with the new domestic antiapartheid coalition, called the Mass Democratic Movement, it has issued a proposal for peace talks with Pretoria. "The question of a...

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