The Pill, considerations of environment, the cost of education and overall economic pressures have finally caught up with the wartime and postwar baby boom. According to newly released federal statistics, the birth rate in the U.S. has declined to a level of 2.08 children per family—or just below the 2.1 plateau needed to achieve zero population growth. That marks a precipitous decline from the palmy days of 1957, when the birth rate stood at a staggering 3.8 children per family.

Zero population growth is the ultimate goal of family-planning groups concerned with the implications of...

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