> Perfection of the first working model of a laser, 1960.
> François Jacob and Jacques Monod formulate the gene represser theory, which correctly explains how genes are turned "on" and "off," 1961.
> Murray Gell-Mann develops the "eightfold way" to explain the relationships between subatomic particles, 1961.
> Genetic code of the DNA molecule is broken by Marshall Nirenberg and J. Heinrich Matthaei, 1961.
> Maarten Schmidt discovers that quasars may be the most distant objects in the universe, 1963.
> Mariner transmits close-up photographs...