Science: Nobelmen of 1961

Three professors at California universities won the Nobel prizes for physics and chemistry last week.

Half of the physics prize went to Robert Hofstadter, 46, of Stanford University, for probing deeper than any man before him into the hidden heart of matter. Born in New York and educated at City College of New York and Princeton University, Hofstadter went west to Stanford in 1950 determined to attack the great mystery of the inner structure of matter. Using a beam of high-energy electrons from Stanford's linear accelerator as a sort of microscope, he and a team of assistants proved that protons and...

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