YUGOSLAVIA: The Rubber Ballot

Because so many of its citizens could not read or write, prewar Yugoslavia adopted the rubber ballot. Under this system, in full view of election officials, the voter holds a little rubber ball in his fist, dips his fist into all the ballot boxes, drops the ball where he chooses, finally shows his empty fist.

Tito's Yugoslavia has kept the rubber ballot—with one significant change. Formerly, soft rubber balls were used; since they made no sound, it was a true variation of the secret ballot. Now, hard rubber balls are used; though they...

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