INVESTIGATIONS: A Wealth of Enemies

"Ongoing, widespread, systematic and occurring at all levels." That is how a 1974 Pennsylvania crime-commission report described police corruption in Philadelphia, whose Democratic mayor, Frank Rizzo, is a tough law-and-order ex-cop. Rizzo's rival in the state capital, Democratic Governor Milton Shapp and his political allies in Philadelphia saw a chance to score two points: clean up the graft-ridden police department and discredit Rizzo at the same time. To accomplish these aims, Shapp turned to a device that is becoming increasingly popular as a way of policing the police and the criminal-justice system. His administration appointed a special prosecutor, a...

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