World: An Army with Two Missions

And three bureaucracies with one commander in chief

Every morning the 413,000 members of Iran's armed forces recite a pledge of allegiance to Xoda, Shah, Mihan (Persian for God, Shah and Fatherland). Significantly, in this tripartite loyalty oath, King comes before country. Iran's army, navy and increasingly sophisticated air force have two missions. One is to defend a nation ringed by potential enemies. The other is to protect the person, prestige and power of Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, who once observed, "In this country, if the King is not the commander in chief of...

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