Environment: Battling the Monsters

The 30-minute expressway drive from Tokyo International Airport into the center of the city offers an unforgettable vision—mile after gray mile of squat, smoke-stained concrete and steel structures, punctuated now and then by smokestacks spewing black fumes. The 400-mile coastal strip from Tokyo to Osaka is the world's most densely industrialized tract of real estate: its factories produce more than half of Japan's $200 billion annual G.N.P. All this industry, says Michitaka Kaino, director of Tokyo's Research Institute for Environmental Protection, provided a kind of bestiary of kogai (pollution): "You name it; and...

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