The World: Ulster: A Long Chronicle of Violence

In 1156, Adrian IV, an English Pope, granted sovereignty over Ireland and its Celtic inhabitants to England's Henry II. For the next four centuries, the English tried sporadically and without success to conquer the Emerald Isle. In 1601, however, an army of Elizabeth I defeated the last of the great Roman Catholic earls, and their lands were turned over to English and Scottish colonizers of the Protestant faith. Much of Ireland's history since then has been a record of bloodshed and trouble. Some milestones: 1690. King James II of England, a Catholic convert,...

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