To the clang of cymbals and drums, China plunged into a pandemonium of celebrations. From humid, semitropical Yunnan to frigid Heilungkiang, millions of Chinese paraded through cities and towns, waving the little red books of Mao Tse-tung's quotations and chanting "Long life to Chairman Mao!" Many carried sunflowers as symbols of loyalty to a man whom his followers revere as "the red sun in our hearts." The occasion was, according to its official title, "The Ninth National Congress of the great, glorious and correct Communist Party of China."

Control Upheaval. Thus, for the first...

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