Essay: UNDIPLOMACY, OR THE DARK AGES REVISITED

THE only safe haven during Europe's dangerous Dark JL Ages and beyond was the castle, with its great moat, drawbridge and armed men glaring from the turrets. The era seethed with raids and counterraids, kidnapings and ransoms. No traveler was secure. Even Richard Coeur-de-Lion, King of England, so feared capture as he headed home from the Crusades in 1192 that he scuttled across central Europe in assorted disguises. No luck. Seized by Austria's Duke Leopold, poor Richard spent a year in captivity before his weary subjects began to cough up 150,000 silver marks—twice...

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