Africa: Hopes & Realities

The dream of independence has many names. In Togo it is ablodé, in Rwanda ubwigenge, in Swahili-speaking East Africa uhuru. But by any name the dream often becomes a horrible nightmare in the execution.

Of the 32 African nations that have achieved independence since the end of World War II (25 in 1960-63 alone), more than half have been racked by severe political and economic convulsions, ranging from the bloody civil wars of the Congo to virtual bankruptcy in Guinea to the assassination of a President in Togo. Under moderate leaders like...

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