Exams: When in Doubt, Bull

If the most popular of the liberal arts is the art of snowing the grader on exams, how should the grader respond? Last week this question cropped up in the first examination of examinations at Harvard in 25 years. The answer given by William G. Perry Jr., director of Harvard's Bureau of Study Counsel, is that snowbound student bluebooks should be divided into two classes. "Bull" is opinion without supporting facts. "Cow" is facts without understanding. If the grader has to make a choice between these two sharply-drawn categories, says Perry,...

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