Cities: Okies of the '60s

In Chicago they know them as WASPS (for White Appalachian Southern Protestants), in Cincinnati as SAMS (for Southern Appalachian Migrants). St. Louis calls them, among other things, swamp turkeys and hoosiers. In Columbus and Cleveland they are simply called hillbillies (the name they dislike most). By whatever name, more than a million impoverished white Southerners, comprising 20% of the population of the 250 Appalachian Mountain counties in nine Southern states, *moved northward between 1950 and 1960 to eke out a precarious living in the big cities. Packed into secondhand cars loaded down with their meager possessions, swarms still arrive...

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