Defense: Reserve Reform

When the Army called up 119,000 reservists and National Guardsmen during the 1961 Berlin crisis, Defense Secretary Robert McNamara was appalled at the results. The civilian soldiers stood at a pitiful average of 65% of authorized combat strength. Several supposedly crack divisions were hopelessly out of training, and many of the troops spent most of their time writing Congressmen and complaining to newsmen about the indignity of being summoned to duty. Then and there, McNamara vowed to overhaul and shape up the nation's reserve ranks. Last week he got into action.

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