What does it mean to be religious? Psychologist John D. Shand, of Pennsylvania's Gettysburg College, interviewed 142 ministers, priests and rabbis, last week reported to a meeting of fellow psychologists that he had found five basic conceptions of the religious person:
1) the "righteous, formalistic fundamentalist," who emphasizes creed, ritual and tradition;
2) the "puritanical fundamentalist," who emphasizes morality and abstention from drinking, smoking, gambling and swearing;
3) the "humanist," who stresses brotherhood and human welfare;
4) the "theistic humanist," who stresses faith in God;
5) the "religious law-observing" type who is most concerned with laws, commandments and participation in congregational activities.
Psychologist Shand had a special...