The battered but not broken Eighth Army rolled south, with vehicle columns bumper-to-bumper on the roads and a million refugees alongside. Trucks and jeeps that broke down were not repaired —they were shoved off the road and burned. Said a reconnaissance pilot, looking down on the dreary spectacle of U.S. defeat and retreat: "This hurts. It hurts where I can't scratch."

The lowest-flying pilot could not count the dead, or see the tide of wounded flowing into collecting stations and field hospitals.

The Chinese Communists surged into burning Pyongyang and its port, Chinnampo....

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