National Affairs: GUIDE TO GIVING

Five tests of foreign aid laid down by State Department Counselor George ("X") Kennan in a speech before the Academy of Political Science: 1) Foreign aid should be designed primarily to serve the best interests of the U.S.

2) It should only help others to help themselves: "We must always reckon that our aid can be only relative, and relative only in a marginal sense; to the efforts they themselves must make ... If their efforts are perfunctory or inefficient or fainthearted, our aid to them can scarcely be otherwise. Above all, our will cannot replace their will . . . We...

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