Education: Not by Bread Alone

Harvard had sent $40,000 worth of food to Europe's starving students. But, said Austrian-born Harvardman Clemens Ludwig Heller, "It's about time we gave them food for their minds." With the help of the faculty and student council, he started raising money (from students, educators, friends) to found a special summer seminar at Salzburg, Austria—for Europeans only. From U.S. colleges and universities he picked a dozen top educators to teach. He chose erudite Francis Otto Matthiessen (American Renaissance) to teach U.S. literature, Italian-born Historian Gaetano Salvemini to teach U.S. history, Anthropologist Margaret Mead for sociology, and James Johnson Sweeney, onetime director of...

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