As soon as the Olympic Games were over last year. Dictator Hitler got down in earnest to a rigorous anti-Catholic campaign. Catholic confessional schools were suppressed at Württemberg, in the Saar, in the Palatinate, and a State Youth Law suppressed surviving Catholic Youth organizations by ordering all children to join the Brown Shirt Hitler Youth.

The Catholic clergy were up in arms. Pastoral letters flew like autumn leaves protesting that the school campaign was a breach of the Vatican-Nazi Concordat (TIME, July 17, 1933). Hitler, however, had a trump card. He had...

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