World: The Limits of Intelligence: Why No One Knew

The invasion of Czechoslovakia caught the U.S. with its guard down. When Soviet Ambassador Anatoly Dobrynin relayed the first details to President Johnson, key foreign-policy makers were scattered. Secretary of State Dean Rusk was preoccupied with a summation of Viet Nam policy for the Democratic Party Platform Committee. Under Secretary of State Nicholas Katzenbach was vacationing at Martha's Vineyard. U.S. Ambassador Llewellyn Thompson had left Moscow for a holiday in Venice that earlier tensions in Prague had delayed. European allies of the U.S. were no better prepared. NATO envoys meeting the next day...