Soviet Union: Are the Jobless Unemployed?

Unemployment has not existed in the Soviet Union since 1930—officially. The Russians are nonetheless finding it harder to ignore the growing number of people who are out of work. The rate is still officially only about1½% of the work force—largely because of close state control of jobs and much make-work—but that means that more than 1,000,000 workers are out of jobs in a society that claims to take care of all the workers' needs. The figure is much higher if short-term unemployment is included: an estimated 11 million Soviet workers switch jobs each year, each averaging an unpaid layoff...

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