Nation: THE CITY: ECHOES OF MEMPHIS

CHARLESTON, S.C., is a city of antebellum mansions with brass knockers, walled gardens and wrought-iron gates. In spring, the stately peninsula city with its long sense of history is a snug, unharried haven for tourists. Charleston's generally docile Negroes and unpugnacious labor unions have blended well into the Old South texture. But this spring the blacks and the unions have both begun to change, and with them, Charleston.

Disturbing the stagnant peace are more than 350 black hospital employees, most of them women, most of them of limited education and skill, who work...

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