In its 178-year history, the U.S. Senate has subjected its members to formal censure only six times prior to the Dodd case. The condemned and the causes of their disgrace:

> Timothy Pickering, a Massachusetts Federalist and former Secretary of State, who in 1810 divulged on the Senate floor a carefully guarded secret message from France's Foreign Minister Talleyrand, weakening the U.S. case in the dispute over ownership of western Florida.

> Benjamin Tappan, Ohio Democrat, who in 1844 smuggled to the old New York Evening Post a copy of the treaty of annexation...

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