After immersing themselves for two years in the history of U.S. business, students at the University of Michigan's Graduate School of Business Administration nominated eleven paragons and three pariahs. Railroads gathered more nominations than any other profession. Because of their Erie connections, three of them cornered the "villain" category. The descending order of votes was:
HEROES Henry Ford Ford Motor Co.
Andrew Carnegie U.S. Steel Corp.
J. Pierpont Morgan J. P. Morgan & Co.
John D. Rockefeller Standard Oil Co.
Cornelius Vanderbilt New York Central Railroad
Alfred P. Sloan Jr.* General Motors Corp.
James J. Hill Great Northern Railway
Amadeo P. Giannini...