Testing: The Growing Unimportance of IQs

After four years of doing without schooling, Negro junior high students in Virginia's Prince Edward County returned to class in September 1963. In the course of the next 18 months, the average IQ of those children rose 18 points. In St. Louis, a cultural enrichment program in slum schools raised the pupils' average IQ by 11.5 points in four years.

Parents of these children were understandably proud that their kids had shown progress. Yet, they were puzzled too. Like most people, they were under the impression that an IQ is a measure of an inherent trait called intelligence, and that...

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