Disarmament: A More Exclusive Club

After nearly four years of painfully deliberate negotiations in Geneva, the U.S. and Russia last week finally produced a draft treaty banning the proliferation of atomic weapons. It was a rare diplomatic milestone. Under terms of the treaty, non-nuclear nations can neither become atomic powers nor pursue the uses of atomic energy except for carefully limited, precisely controlled and expressly pacific purposes. The flaw in the treaty, of course, is that it binds only those who sign it—which almost certainly excludes France and Red China, already nuclear powers, and perhaps a few other potential nuclear powers.

Defense Assurances. Still, the...