Science: Prizes for Teams

In making its 1956 awards in physics and chemistry, the Nobel Prize Committees of the Swedish Royal Academy of Science recognized the fact that few modern scientists work alone. They generally work in teams or as individuals closely linked together by exchanges of ideas and information. The physics prize last week went jointly to three Americans who invented transistors, those specks of educated germanium that do the work of much larger vacuum tubes and have already produced an electronic revolution. The prizemen, Dr. Walter Brattain, Dr. William Shockley and Dr. John Bardeen, did their work in close association at Bell Telephone...

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