INDIA: Force & Soul Force

Indians who believe in achieving their ends without resorting to violence put a great deal of faith in satyagraha, or reliance on soul force. Sometimes this takes the form of marching demonstrators who may provoke attack but won't respond to it. As a method of persuading Portugal to give up Goa, the Rhode Island-sized colony on India's west coast, satyagraha was a failure last year. So was diplomacy.

Portuguese Dictator Salazar stubbornly held on to Goa, warned that there would be no transfer to sovereignty "by peaceful means," as Prime Minister Nehru...

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