In ten years, the U.S. had gained nearly 19 million people—the biggest increase in its history, and greater than the combined populations of Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Finland. The population of the U.S., according to the tentative census figures released last week, now stands at 150,520,198. The massive westward shift of the U.S. people would perceptibly change the traditional political balance of the U.S.

In the new census figures, New York still held a big lead as the No. 1 state, with a population of 14,743,210. But the real surprise was bustling, booming California (10,472,348), which had jumped in...

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