In recent years, history readers have had a consistently good run of books. This year was below par in this field, but it produced a few standouts.

A STUDY OF HISTORY, VOLS. VII-X, by Arnold Toynbee, brought to an end the most massive and controver sial historical inquiry since Spengler. It saw the West in a time of troubles, on the brink of becoming part of a world state, and ended by affirming that man can control his earthly destiny, but only by earning the grace of God.

A HISTORY OF THE CRUSADES, by Steven Runciman. The third and last volume of the...

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