Arnold J. Toynbee, the British historian who has worked harder than any living man to synthesize the meaning of the world's known past civilizations (he lists 26), took a long look into the future. Invited to speak last week at a philosophical society at Edinburgh University with no newspapermen present and without a prepared text, Historian Toynbee made a gloomy but provocative guess at the world in the year 2002 A.D.

"Within half a century," he predicted ". . . the whole face of the planet will have been unified politically through the...

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