For months, the argument had gone on quietly but insistently at Washington's topmost levels. Should the U.S. seek a peace treaty with Japan? Yes, said the State Department; the time had come to bring a sovereign Japan back into the free world. No, the Pentagon protested; the U.S. did not dare withdraw its occupation troops and leave Japan wide open to Communist aggression.

Last week President Truman announced that the argument was over. "It has long been the view of the U.S. Government that the people of Japan were entitled to a peace treaty which would bring them back into...

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