FASHIONS: Iron Bottoms

When 20-year-old Levi Strauss sailed from Manhattan round Cape Horn to San Francisco in 1850 to seek a fortune in the gold fields, he carried a roll of canvas in his baggage. He intended to sell it to a tentmaker to get enough cash for a grubstake. But when he got ashore, the complaint of a friendly miner gave him a better idea. "Pants don't wear worth a hoot up in the diggins," said the miner. "Can't get a pair strong enough to last no time."

Levi promptly went into the clothing business. He...

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